Culture

October 12th, 2016

September 13, 2011

‘DASHAIN’ OR ‘VIJAYA DASHAMI’ : IN KEEPING THE TRADITION SURROUNDS A QUESTION OF ITS VALIDITY

Posted by?The Himalayan Voice:

[Linguistic anthropologist?B. K. Rana,?in his article published in 2001 in Kantipur,?unfolds the history of Drabya Shah and Prithivi Naryan Shah (Founder of modern Nepal) how those two kings reached to celebrate?Vijaya Dashami?as their symbolic victory over their enemies.?When the Hindu rulers in Nepal defeated the local rulers specially the Magars, mimicked the victory of Rama over Ravana as a great victory celebration. In the context of Nepal, the way it has been viewed as the victory of?devas?over?asuras, victory of?satya?over?asatya, cannot be explained otherway than its celebration of enmity against its own people. In essence it is the wholesome melodrama politically as well as racially profiled against its own people. Rama and Ravana war perhaps did not happen in the land of present Nepal.]

By Kishore Sherchand PhD

Image courtesy:?India on Rent

This?year too Nepalese folks will be celebrating?Vijaya Dashami?or?Dashainas the most important festival keeping the longest Government holiday, mass sacrificing, visiting seniors to receive blessings and so on.?After the Panchayat autocracy, a message of boycotting?Vijaya Dashami?festival started to float especially among indigenous people – the?Janajatis?in the country. Many started to raise questions more objectively. Some formally declared boycotting it.

Historically, much of its celebration is tied up with the Ramayana the great epic wherein Rama is described as killing ?Ravana, a historic King of Sri Lanka. The story goes around a war between two rulers, Deva Rama and demonRakshas?(राक्षस)?:??Ravana. There is no any scientific validity that Ravana was indeed a demon or?Rakshas (राक्षस)?except for believing that they were two rivals. Before the Indo-Aryan invasion, the?Adibashis?in the plains of Indian sub-continent were largely believed to be descendents of Dravidian bloods; much darker in color; and by modern racial classification, a separate than Caucasian although there is not much scientific verification to differentiate.

However, many of south Indians and Sri Lankan are said to be descendents of Dravids. So, if the demon or?Rakshas?Ravana is a true story, it should not be imagined other than a true human being (Homo sapiens; 2n=46). The only more plausible explanation of the word demon?or?Rakshasa?in Hindu mythology could apply to whoever viewed as an enemy or you don?t like (implied). The enemies are always thought to be bad and evil.

Linguistic-anthropologist B. K. Rana, in his article published in 2001 in Kantipur,?unfolds the history of Drabya Shah and Prithivi Naryan Shah (Founder of modern Nepal) how those two kings reached to celebrate Vijaya Dashami as their symbolic victory over their enemies.?When the Hindu rulers in Nepal defeated the local rulers specially the Magars, mimicked the victory of?Ramaover?Ravana?as a great victory celebration. In the context of Nepal, the way it has been viewed as the victory of?devas?over?asuras, victory of?satya?overasatya, cannot be explained otherway than its celebration of enmity against its own people. In essence it is the wholesome melodrama politically as well as racially profiled against its own people. Rama and Ravana war perhaps did not happen in the land of present Nepal.

We are closer to India and ofcourse familiar with Hinduism and Hindu mythology also. Naturally we know more about Rama?s greatness than that of Ravana. While going to the other side of the world what Sri Lankan people think about this mythology: they have opposite perception over so-called?Rakshas?(राक्षस)?King Ravan. They don?t believe Ravana ?was a demon or?Rakshas?(राक्षस).He was a great King of Sri Lanka. The story goes on this way : Sri Lanka was much more developed in those days and used naturally to boast of having?Puspak Bimanwhich I refute totally. The modern theory of human evolution does not testify at all other than a mere blind faith and dogmatism. The only plausible explanation should be, more science and technology could have developed. The great Ravana possessed ten talents as depicted having 10 heads than just one head. There is not yet proven evidence of his physical existence in Sri Lanka except in a historically written the Hindu epic. However, there has been some attempt to proving the existence of his dead body lying in an inaccessiblecave called ‘Ravana Cave‘.?And they are trying to develop it as a powerful tourist destination.

My experience goes all the way back to India while I was a student for my academic career. During my six years’ education in North West India, I did not even notice when this?Dushehara?festival fell because they were not celebrating the way they were doing for?Deepavali?or?Tihar. While looking intoTihar, I am not much aware of any portrait of its political and racial motives. I guess it is more colorful and joyful, showing the respects of brotherhood-sisterhood, adoring some animals if not all. It does not show of political implication or enmity against other race, caste, color or creed.

From the above, it is said that?Vijaya Dashami?is a depiction of enmity among rulers, winners and losers, one who defeated and the other who got defeated, an inherent characteristics of power hungry rulers. ?It is a political celebration. We may even question, ?Are we the enemies of Sri Lankan people?? who like so much visiting Nepal and Nepalese people and Lumbini – the Birthplace of Siddhartha Gautama. According to the statistics, last year more Sri Lankans visited Lumbini Nepal than any other third country citizens.

The other dark side of this festival is the mass killing ?(or one may customarily say ‘sacrifice’) of animals in the name of worshiping Goddess Durga. People kill and eat meat but not in the name of God which is another most hatred and inhumanistic way how it is being practiced. Many social activists are against mass killing of animals in the name of ‘some sacrifice’ and consider it as exhibition of animal cruelty, barbarism. Hence, one may outright question about the validity and applicability of?Srimatbhagabat, the main source of Hindu?Dharma. What the Vedic way of?Dharma?speaks does not seem to have been applied in the Nepalese society.

 

Things change in perception and in need. It is the dynamics of the law of nature. We ought to be able to separate bad from good whether it is within a faith or between the faiths or any social order. We ought to be able to separate humanistic from inhumanistic actions, beliefs or faiths. It must address the functional aspects of humanity otherwise it will lead to inhuman behavior and social injustice.

 

People can adopt others? faith, culture and social norms if they speak humanity and a sense of peaceful co-existence. There is no problem to acceptDeepawali, Tihar,?Sarswati?or any other if that justifies the humanistic way of life. If not, people always deserve to question on the validity of Dashain, the greatest festival of Nepalese people. Finally, it is the time that Nepalese people rethink and question even of the status of?Vijaya Dashami?as a national holiday when other more humanistically inspired festivities are available in the Nepalese Society. Related Posts: a)?DASHAIN THIS YEAR IN INDIA MAHISHASUR DECLARED MARTYR b)?INDIAN GOVERNMENT HAS RECOGNIZED ‘ASURS’ AS ONE OF ITS ANCIENT PEOPLES

‘DASHAIN’ AND ‘TIHAR’: FROM A SOCIO-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE? [The identity of a nation fades away when its cultural belief fades away.?To avoid such a situation to surface, Hindus, Buddhists and Nepali people?scattered across the world must initiate something serious to save our cultural heritage. We, the ?patriots of the nation pray to goddess?Nava Durga Bhawani?to be?kind to the Nepalese People all around the world.?Goddess Kali?is worshipped by all Hindus as the manifestation of?Shakti?- the fierce power of nature,?destroyer of all evil. Her peaceful manifestation is?Goddess Durga.?Durga is the symbol of truth who also subdues?Mahishashura, ?the?representative of devilish attitude. A country’s existence and prestige gradually erode when tradition and culture are not kept alive. One must not be confused about the?country’s ?old customs and tradition so to say religion also.]

By Dirgha Raj Prasai

Dashain?(Vijaya Dashami)?is a traditional cultural festivity. Before?Prithvi Narayan Shah (1868), the festival of Dashain and Tihar used to be?observed as a common culture of all people. After Prithvi Narayan?Shah unified a modern Nepal, a new tradition was set by bringing?Phulpati and Jamara to Kathmandu from the Gorakhkali Temple by a Magar?priest. People from both ?faiths: Hindu and Buddhist take Tika?from senior family members on the occasion of?Vijaya Dashami. Among all religions?of the world Hindu religion is considered as the most liberal.?Voltaire says, ‘Hinduism is the best gift?of the East to the West’. Similarly, George Bernard Shaw said ‘Hindu religion is the most important and the?most liberal religion of the world’. If you checked Encyclopaedia of?Religions and Ethics: you may come across some signs of Hindu religion ?found even in the?present Islamic country like Iran. Stone inscriptions of 486 BC found in?Iran contain the words ‘Hindu and Hindus’. Even an ancient Parsi?scripture ‘Shatir’ has ?a word of?Vedavyasa, ‘I am a true?Hindu-born in a Hindu country’. In Dashain, interested Hindus, Buddhists and member of Muslim communities used to visit the royal palace to receive Tika from the King. But will?the national festival hold fast under this circumstances that the?monarchy is gone???Some people express their dissatisfaction to?the?unconstitutional and ?forceful dethronement ?of the monarch. Nepal was founded and unified with the joint effort of the monarch and the?people. We Nepali are very much concerned about the forceful?displacement of the monarch following unconstitutional procedures. Patriots of the country are pondering how to save the?nation and chase the ‘ruling monsters’ away. The agendas of republic, secularism and?federalism will disintegrate the nation. Nepal has been orphaned?without the monarch. The Dashain celebrated in the absence of the?monarch is like a nation without identity. It is a matter of profound grief and sorrow.

The identity of a nation fades away when its cultural belief fades away.?To avoid such a situation to surface, Hindus, Buddhists and Nepali people?scattered across the world must ?initiate something serious to save our cultural heritage. We, the ?patriots of the nation pray to goddess?Nava Durga Bhawani?to be?kind to the Nepalese People all around the world.?Goddess Kali?is worshipped by all Hindus as the manifestation of?Shakti?- the fierce power of nature,?destroyer of all evil. Her peaceful manifestation is?Goddess Durga.?Durga is the symbol of truth who also subdues?Mahishashura, ?the?representative of devilish attitude. A country’s existence and prestige gradually erode when tradition and culture are not kept alive. One must not be confused about the?country’s ?old customs and tradition so to say religion also. Both the Hindus and Buddhists celebrate?Dashain?as the national festival. People of Buddhist?faith also celebrate Dashain cheerfully. Lord Buddha saidSanatan Dharma?is the chief religion. They also?believe that there should be no intermingling of religion and politics?in traditional festivals. Buddhist Chandramukhi Lama says, ‘Dhashain is our?national heritage’. Buddhists accept red (vermilion powder, few others take white) tika on their foreheads.?Whatever colour it is, it is symbol of victory of truth over falsehood.

Gyanibajra Lama (79 years), Chief of Buaudhha has residence aside of Bouddha Stupa. He showers blessing to peoples in Dashain with?Tika?and?Jamara. Similarly, Nepalese Muslim Community has also a huge respect of Dashain. Muslim community in Nepalgunj ?a border township with India, ?celebrate Dashain?taking Red Tika and Yellow Jamara as Prasad of Devi. (Kantipur Daily?3rd Kartik, 2067) This is an example of respect of one religion to?another or religious harmony The Dalai Lama, in an interview to?Panchjanya Hindi Weekly?(Nov 22, 1992),?told that he believed both Hinduism and Buddhism as ‘brothers’. These two?religions have many similarities like?Samadhi,?Yoga,?Tantra?etc. which were adopted by Buddhists from Hindus. Similarly the former Bhutanese King?Jigme Singhe Wangchuk rightly said on Dashain, ?”I actively participate in?Dhashain. Our goddess (Ista-devata) is?Mahalaxmi?and we worship Shiva?and Vishnu.” (The?Times of India’ in January 7, 1993). Since we have a tradition to worship both Shiva and Buddha, our country never?experienced religious strife among the followers of these two religions.?Festivals like?Dashain, Tihar, Teej, Buddha Jayanti, Indrajatra?etc. are life styles of Nepalese people. During this greatest festival of Dashain?countless Hindus, Buddhists and several Muslims demonstrate hearty?association and respect towards the festival.

Tihar and Nepal Sambat

Nepal Sambat?and?Mahapuja?are celebrated at ‘Tihar.’ In Tihar we worship Goddess?Laxmi,?the goddess of wealth. During the?festival all the houses in the cities and villages are decorated and oil lamps are lit up. Thus, during the night the entire village or city looks?like a sparkling diamond. This festival is celebrated five days.?The first day of?Tihar?is known as??Kag Tihar?,?(crow’s day). Crow, the?messenger of death, ?is honoured on the first day of Tihar. The second?day is called??Kukur Tihar?,?(dogs’ day). A dog plays many roles in?our society. We pray the dog to guard our house as he guards the underworld-gate ?also and to divert destruction away from our homes.?On this day you can see dogs running around with garlands on their?necks.?The third day is the most important day of the festival. It is called??Laxmi Puja?,?the day when we worship the goddess of wealth. On this day,?early in the morning the cow is offered ?worship. Tika is put on her head?and a garland is placed around her neck and ?then she is fed delicious foods.

A?cow also symbolizes wealth and she is the most holy animal for Hindus. On this day throughout the evening many groups of children go around ?houses singing?Deusi Bhaila-?a song of ?praise to the goddess of wealth. Dancing and telling the old story ?of god and goddess (first?day)?‘Bhaili Ram’?then‘Deusuri Ram’?with great joy and these children are given with love- gifts, money, various food and fruits also. During this day, the entire country rises up full of joy and vitality. The fourth day?is bit different. Today the things you worship depend on your specific?cultural background. Normally most ?people perform??Govardhan?Puja?,?(Bull worship). The bull is worshipped with Tika, garland and?then a delicious meal also. In the last day, a sister worships her brothers for their?prosperous, happy and long life. She ?worships?‘Yamaraj?(God of death) to give her brothers long life. The main?theme behind?Bhai Tika?(brother worship) is the sisters praying?for their brother?s long life to the?Yama Raj,?the god of the underworld.?Tihar starts from the thirteenth day of the waning moon in October.? Tihar is called as??Yama?Panchak??also which literally means ?the five?days of the underworld god?. We also worship ?Yamaraj? in different?forms in those five days. In other words this festival is meant for long life, prosperity and happiness. The Hindu?s all over the world, irrespective of their caste and creed and?country of origin, celebrate this festival?‘Tihar’?or?‘Deepawali’.Both?Nepal ?and ?India, the two countries?share sdame religion and culture: like Depawali and Dusera, People in other countries like USA, Canada, Fiji, Guyana, Trinidad,?Malaysia also celebrate Depawali..It is the only festival celebrated all over the country from Tamil Nadu to Kashmir?and Manipur to Gujarat. In the Northern India this festival is celebrated?as?Diwali?but in South India it is celebrated as?Deepawali.?Deepawali,?the festival of light is a harbinger of joy and happiness.? It is a?celebration of the triumph of light over darkness and of hope over?despair. That the festival is celebrated by people from diverse faiths?is an admiration or affirmation of the Hindu traditions in the?world.?Dashain (worshipping Goddess Bhagawati for Power) and Tihar?(worshipping Goddess Lakshmi for wealth) plays as link of cultural?interrelationship among the Nepali people. Nepalese residing outside?the country observe the festival as the identity of Nepalese people who are spread across the world. Regardless of their caste and creed they ?exchange?greetings and celebrate the festival in perfect cultural harmony. But some Nepalese people coming under the Christian influence have been able to create illusions aiming at the people to boycott the great festival.?But some Christians celebrate Dadhain as a cultural value without?Tika. There have been efforts to pollute the holly festival with the?color of the politics also. The leaders of different political parties in Nepal are not following the norms and values of their?respective parties. ?This is a matter of regret for our country. Some people belonging to indigenous groups are also competing with each other to show off that they can be ?better off boycotting?Dashain. But the indigenous people from broad tell that boycotting Dasian may not solve the issues they are raising today. Prof.Gopinarayan Pradhan from Darjeeling says- ‘the attempt to?reduce the extensive Nepali identity to class based identity is sad.’?Swami Prapnanacharya said-‘Estadev Mahadev, Parwati andDrawasam?and?Yumasan.?Worshipping Nawadurga in Nawaratra is an ancient tradition.?To negate the ancient culture of receiving Tika from seniors on Vijaya Dashami ?is not wise thing to do.. Dashain brings a joyous moment to all. Those who have started boycotting the festival are making mistake. This is their psychological defeat. What can be achieved from losing the?identity? Dashain offers an immense opportunity for the people to be together and share joy and happiness as Christians do at Christmas. In reality ?Dashain is not a religion. It is a traditional and cultural belief. It should be kept?alive.

October 11, 2016

DID EMPEROR ASHOKA INITIATE ‘VIJAYA DASHAMI’ TRADITION IN TODAY’S SOUTH ASIA ?

Posted by?The Himalayan Voice:

[On the occasion of ‘Vijaya Dashami – 2073’ Bikram Sambat, an interesting article is posted here today for discussion. The author of the article has a bit long-range view here that?Emperor Ashoka?started observing?‘Vijaya Dashami’?and which may simply not be accepted by all. If a reader only reads Moda Nath Prashrit’s ‘Devasura Sangram’ (2030), s/he can easily understand how societies developed overtime in South Asia. The author’s opinion as such may not be substantiated by historiography, archeology, sociology or even genetics. People have different opinions about the origin of ‘Dashain’ or?’Vijaya Dashami’??and in Nepal’s context, it’s fundamentally a religious ritual or ‘weapon worship'(not dropping any weapons as discussed by the author in the article) performed??for the expansion of Gorkha Kingdom – so to sayKing Prithvi Narayan Shah?brought this festival in Kathmandu. ‘The Other Gorkha’ beneath Nagarjun Mountain in Kathmandu is an evidence. This festival commemorates the struggle between (which still continues some way or the ?other) two groups of peoples – the Aryans or the invaders and the Asuras , the indigenous peoples.??A recent story on?Sushma Asura?(सुषमा?असुर) from?Sakhuwapani Gurdari Panchyat, Bishanpur, Gumla District of Jharkhand, India and another report on?Mahisahsura?may suffice here.??- The Blogger]

सम्राट अशोकः शस्त्रत्याग र विजय दिवस

लेखक केदार शाक्य

इतिहासको एक कालखण्ड थियो । मगध सम्राट चक्रबर्ती अशोकले कलिंग युद्ध जिते । राजधानी पाटलीपुत्रमा दश दिनसम्म विजय उत्सव मनाइयो । युद्धमा एक लाख मानिस बलिदान भएका थिए । अखण्डभारतको निर्माण भयो ।? तथापि उनको मनमा असह्य डाहा उत्पन्न भयो । छटपटी भयो । मन अशान्त भयो । बिक्षिप्त र बिचलित भयो ।? यति धेरै मानिसको बलिदानको जिम्मेवार उनी? स्वयम थिए । आश्विनशुक्लपक्ष दशमीका दिन? सम्राट अशोकले शस्त्रत्यागेको घोषणा गरे । संयोगले हिन्दुहरुको विजयादशमी कै दिन पर्नगयो । मौर्यवंशका संस्थापक महान सम्राट चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्यको तलवार उनका पुत्र सम्राट विन्दुसारलेप्राप्त गरे । त्यही तलवार सम्राट विन्दुसारका पुत्र चक्रबर्ती महान सम्राट अशोकले कलिंग विजयपश्चात सदाका लागि त्यागे । उनी आजीवन बुद्धको शरणमा गए ।? जतिसुकै ठूलो शत्रु भए पनि क्षमादान उत्तम हो ।

आमा धर्माबाट पाएको शिक्षा यही थियो । ब्राह्मण कन्या धर्माले सम्राट विन्दुसारसित विवाह पश्चात अनेक कष्ट सहनु? परेको थियो । उनमा? बदलाको भावना अलिकति पनि थिएन ।? सम्राट अशोक आमालाई पितासम्राट बिन्दुसारलाई भन्दा धेरै श्रद्धा गर्थे । रागदरवारीका कारण धर्मालाई षडयन्त्रगरी मारे । अशोकले दुइ शत्रुसंग प्रत्यक्ष लड्नु परेको थियो । आन्तरिक र बाह्य शत्रुसंग लडेर अन्ततः विजय हासिल गरे । अन्ततःगत्वाकलिंग युद्धको परिणाम पछि उनमा महान परिवर्तन आयो । हृदय परिवर्तन भयो ।

सम्राट अशोक संसारको इतिहासमा संझनयोग्य छन् । उनले बुद्ध तीर्थस्थलहरुको भ्रमण गरे । बुद्धजन्मस्थल लुम्बिनीमा दर्शन पुजन गरे । ब्राह्मीलिपिमा अभिलेख सहित देवानामःपियतिष्य अर्थात देवताहरुका पनिप्रिय सम्राट अशोक भनि उल्लेखगरी अशोकस्तम्भ खडागरे ।?”हिद भगवं जाते ति लुं मिनी गामे” लेख्न लगाएरशाक्यमुनि बुद्ध यहाँ लुम्बिनीमा जन्मिएको कुरा प्रमाणित गरे?। बुद्ध महापरिनिर्वाणको दुइ सयबर्षपछि सम्राट अशोक लुम्बिनी दर्शन पुजनमा आए । सम्राट अशोकले बिभिन्न स्थानमा शिलास्तम्भहरु खडा गरेका छन्? ।?’हिद बुधे जाते साक्य-मुनि? ति’??भनेर यहाँ मात्र लेखे । इतिहासको यही आधारमा सन१९९७ मा लुम्बिनीलाइ युनेस्कोले बिश्वसम्पदा घोषित गरेको हो ।? उनी राज्यशासनको बीसौं बर्षमा आफ्ना गुरु भिक्षु उपगुप्तसित तीर्थस्थल भ्रमणमा आएका थिए । लुम्बिनीमा अशोकस्तम्भ खडागरेपछि सम्राटलेबाटोघाटो बनाए । कुवा खनाए । किसानहरुका लागि पैनी,कुलो बनाए । यहाँ यौटा बिषय उल्लेखनीय छ । शिलाभिलेखमा उल्लेख भएको ….?’अठ- भागीयचःको शाव्दिक अर्थमा रहेको बिबाद अझै पनि समाधान भएको छैन । बुद्धजन्मस्थल लुम्बिनीका जनतालाई आठभागको एक भाग मात्र कर तिरे पुग्ने हिसाबले कर मिनाह गरिदिए भन्ने अर्थ पुरातत्वबिभाग आदी सरकारी पक्षले लगाएको छ । तर केही भारतीय विद्वानहरुले भने बुद्धको अस्तुधातु? आठ भागमा बाढेर आठ दिशामा विशाल चैत्यहरु बनाइएको भन्ने तर्क अगाढी सारेका पनि छन् ।? तर यी सबै तर्कहरुमा? इतिहासविद,?विद्वतबर्ग सहमत छैनन् । बिपक्षमा छन् । यो अर्थसंग एकमत छैन । यसको सही अर्थ आर्यअष्टांगिक मार्गमा लाग भनिएको हो भन्ने धेरैको दाबी? छ । सत्य पनि यही हो ।

कलिंगसित मगध साम्राज्यको पुस्तैनी दुष्मनी थियो । कलिंगकी राजकुमारी कौरवकी र अशोकको प्रेम थियो । विवाह अर्कै नारी देवीसित भयो । विवाह पक्का भएपनि कौरवकीका पिता राजा जनार्दनले अनौठो शर्तराखे । विवाह पछि मगधले कलिंंगको आधिपत्य स्वीकार गर्नुपर्छ । सम्राट विन्दुसार र अशोकलाइ शर्त बिल्कुलै स्वीकारयोग्य थिएन । मगध साम्राज्य झनै शक्तिशाली थियो ।? सम्राट अशोकले शस्त्र त्यागगरीशान्तिमार्ग अवलम्बनगर्ने कारणहरुमा अन्य केही महत्वपूर्ण पक्षहरु पनि मान्न सकिन्छ । लाखौं मानिसको बलिदानबाट प्राप्तहुने राज्यसुख भन्दा धम्मविजयको सुझबुझ अपनाउनुमा? श्रेयष्कर हुन्छ । उनलाई यसकोमनोवैज्ञानिक अभास हुनुमा अन्य कतिपय पक्ष रहेको विश्वास गर्नसकिन्छ । आफु सम्राट बन्न उनले १६ जना सौतेनी आमाहरुबाट जन्मिएका ९९ जना दाजु भाइहरुको हत्या गरेका थिए । राज्यशक्ति प्राप्तीमा उनले थुप्रैयुद्ध,जनहत्या र? हिंसात्मक? घटनाहरुको सामनागर्नु परेको थियो । अनेक हिंसात्मक घातप्रतिघात प्रतिशोधको मुलकारण बन्न सक्छ भन्ने मनोवैज्ञानिक आभाष उनलाई भयो ।

धम्मविजयको मार्ग अपनाउन आमा रानी धर्माको प्रभाव यौटा पक्ष थियो । तथापि उनकी अर्की रानी विदिसाको सहयोग विशेष् उल्लेखनीय छ । वेदिस नगरकी कन्या विदिसा बौद्धकुलकी थिइन् । बिडुडभले? कपिलबस्तुमाथि आक्रमण गरेर? चौहत्तर हजार शाक्यहरुको बध गरे । आमसंहारबाट बचेर पलायनभएका शाक्यवंशीय एक परिवारकी सन्तान विदिसासित सम्राट अशोकको गान्धर्व विवाह भएको थियो । उनकैकोखबाट महेन्द्र र? संघमिता जन्मिएका थिए । सम्राट अशोक एकताका युद्धमा गएका बेला वेदिसा नगरमा बास बसेका थिए । चैत्य पुजागर्न गइरहेकी विदिसालाई देखेर उनी मोहित भएका थिए ।अशोकले विदिसासित? विवाहका लागि प्रस्ताब गरे । अशोक उनकै घरमा बास बसेका थिए । सम्राट अशोकले पहिलो सन्तान छोराको नाम महेन्द्र राखे । दोस्रो सन्तान छोरीको नाम रानी विदिसाले आफै बौद्धविधिअनुसार संघमिता राखिन्। सम्राटले स्वीकृति प्रदानगरेका थिए ।

अशोकलाई धम्म उपदेशमा आकर्षितगर्नमा रानी विदिसाको हात रहेको देखिन्छ । ३२ बर्षको उमेरमा सम्राट बनेका अशोकको ७२ बर्षमा देहान्त भयो । उनले १४ बर्षपछि मात्र मगधसम्राट बिन्दुसारलाई पिता भनेरचिनेका थिए । रानी धर्माले दरवारिया षडयन्त्रका कारण हत्या हुने देखेर अशोकलाई उनको पिताको नाम बताएका थिएनन् । अर्को बिडम्बना थपियो । पिताको पहिचान पछि पनि उनले दश बर्षसम्म अज्ञातस्थलमाचण्ड बनेर बस्नुपरेको थियो । ?आफुलाइ भन्दा वोधिवृक्षलाई बढी मायागरेको देखेर सम्राट अशोककी अर्की रानी असन्धिमित्राले वोधिवृक्षमा बिष खन्याउन लगाइन् । वोधिवृक्ष सुक्यो । यसबाट सम्राटलाइ झनैशोक उत्पन्न भयो । पछि पुनः राजबैद्यहरुले जरामा दूध हालेर बचाएका थिए ।

बुद्ध उपदेशलाई ब्याबहारिक बनाउन उनले लोककल्याणकारी थुप्रैकार्य गरे । आफ्ना जनतालाई सुखसुविधा दिन गाउँगाउँमा खानेपानीको व्यबस्था गरिदिन्थे । बाटोघाटो बनाइ दिन्थे । उनमा आएको हृदयपरिवर्तनको यौटा अर्कोपक्ष बौद्ध साहित्यमा यसरी पनि उल्लेख छ ।? एकदिन शान्तभावमा सडकमा पिण्डपात्र लिएर हिंडिरहेका निग्रोध श्रामणेरलाई देखे । सम्राटले उनलाई दरवारमा बोलाएर सोधे । तिमी को हौ??निग्रोध श्रामणेरले? शान्त भावले? भने । राजकुमार सुसिमका पुत्र हुँ । उनी सम्राटका सौतेनी दाजु राजकुमार सुसिमका छोरा थिए । सम्राटले श्रामणेरलाई सोधे । मैले तिम्रो पितालाई मारें । तिमी त्यसको बदला लिनचाहदैनौ???श्रामणेरले आफु बुद्धको शरणमा गएकाले कुनै पनि बदलाको भाव मनमा नभएको बताए । उनी ५ बर्षको उमेरमा नै श्रामणेर भएका थिए ।? इतिहासविदहरु भन्छन् सम्राट अशोकलाई धम्मराज्यखडागर्नमा यसको पनि प्रभाव परेको थियो ।

महान चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्यले आचार्य चाणक्यको मार्गनिर्देशमा मगध साम्राज्यको स्थापना गरेका? थिए । उनका पुत्र सम्राट बिन्दुसारले आन्तरिक र बाह्य शत्रुहरुसित लड्नु परेको थियो । उनी माथि ब्राह्मणवादी दरवारियाअधिकारीहरुको मनोवैज्ञानिक दवाव थियो । महान सम्राट अशोकले ब्राह्मणबादी दरवारिया अधिकारीहरुको दबदबालाई अन्त्यगर्न पनि शस्त्रत्यागको घोषणा गरेका थिए । सम्राट अशोकले धम्मराज्य बिस्तारकोघोषणापछि बौद्धभिक्षुहरुलाई नियमित भोजनदान गर्थे । इतिहासबिदहरुको उपरोक्त भनाइ यसरी पनि पुष्ठी हुन्छ । ?अशोकको दरवारमा दिनहुँ पाँचसय भिक्षुहरुलाई भोजनदान हुन थालेपछि छद्मभेषीभिक्षुहरुको संख्या बढ्न थाल्यो । सम्राटको आदेश भन्दै ब्राह्मणबादी दरवारियाहरुले दरवारमा नै हिंसा मच्चाए । सम्राटले थाहा पाएर पछि रोकेका थिए । जीवनको अन्तिमकालमा उनी असक्त र दयनीय भएपछिउनको आदेशको पालना हुन छाड्यो । भिक्षुहरुलाई दानदिने कार्यमा दरवारियाहरुबाट बाधा खडा गरियो । सम्राटले आफुसंग भएको अन्तिम स्वर्णमुद्रा दानदिन भनिकन आचार्य राधा गुप्तलाई दिए ।उनी आचार्यचाणक्यका नाति भनि इतिहासमा उल्लेख गरिएको छ । आचार्य चाणक्य पछि यिनी अशोकका सहयोगी थिए ।

सम्राट अशोकले बिभिन्न देशमा धम्मदुत पठाए । आफ्ना छोरा महेन्द्रलाई बौद्धभिक्षु बनाएर धम्म प्रचारका लागि श्रीलंका पठाए । त्यहाँका राजा दुठ्ठगामिनिलाई बुद्धअस्तुधातु उपहार पठाए । सुनको पात्रमापठाइएको बुद्धअस्तुधातु राजाले समुद्रमा कम्मरसम्म पानीमा भिजेर आफै ग्रहणगर्न लाग्दा अदुभुत दृश्य देखियो । अस्तुधातु राखिएको सुनकोपात्र उडेर राजाको शिरमा पर्नगयो । राजा आनन्दले भाव विभोर भए ।बुद्धको जीवनकालमा नै झरेको अर्को दन्तधातु चीनमा पनि सात किसिमको हिरा,मोति,जवाहरातहरुले सजाएर बेइजिंगको एक बुद्धचैत्यमा दर्शनको लागि राखिएको छ ।? श्रीलंकामा आज पनि महेन्द्रमहास्थविरलाई बुद्धपछि अत्यन्त श्रद्धा गरिन्छ । उनले अशोकको धम्मराज्य बिस्तारमा योगदान गरेका छन् । छोरी संघमितालाई पनि सम्राटले धम्मदुत बनाएर श्रीलंका पठाए । उनिहरु दुबैले धम्मप्रचार गरे ।अर्कोपटक? संघमिताका छोरालाई समेत महेन्द्र महास्थविरको आग्रहमा श्रामणेर बनाएर उसैको साथमा राजालाई वोधीबृक्षको कलमी उपहार पठाए । बुद्धअस्तुधातु र वोधिबृक्ष कलमी अहिले यहींबाट नेपालमासमेत उपहारमा ल्याइएको छ ।

कुशीनारामा बुद्धमहापरिनिर्वाणपछि आठभाग लगाइ श्रद्धपूर्बक स्तुपबनाइ राखिएको बुद्धअस्तुधातुहरुको खोजीगरी सम्राट अशोकले चौरासीहजार स्तुपहरुमा? राखेका थिए । रामग्राममा कोलियहरुबाट सुरक्षितअस्तुधातुहरु नागहरुले रक्षागरी राखेको हुँदा त्यसै छाडिएको बौद्ध साहित्यमा उल्लेख छ ।? रामग्राम अहिले नवलपरासी जिल्लामा पर्छ। बुद्धअस्तुधातु भूगर्भमा नै सुरक्षित रहेको विश्वास छ । अंग्रेज शासनबाटस्वतन्त्र भएपछि भारतको तिरंगा राष्टिय झण्डामा राखिएको धम्मचक्रलाई अशोकचक्र भनिन्छ । वास्तवमा त्यो धम्मचक्र हो । धम्मविजय पछि सम्राट अशोकले धम्मचक्र प्रयोगमा ल्याएका थिए ।? अशोक चैत्यःलिपिविशेषज्ञ हेमराज शाक्यको स्वयम्भूमहाचैत्य ग्रन्थमा उल्लेख छ । सम्राट अशोक नेपाल आएका थिए । उनले आफ्नी छोरी चारुमती नेपालका राजकुमार देवपालसित विवाह गरिदिए । बुद्धपुजा र उपासनाकालागि चाबहिलमा विहार बनाइ दिए । ललितपुरमा चारयुग सत्य,त्रेता,द्वापर र कलियुगको प्रतिकस्वरुप चार दिशामा माटोको ढिष्को उठाएर चारवटा चैत्य निर्माण गरेका छन् । जनबोलीमा अशोक चैत्यः नै भनिन्छ ।इमाडोल,लगनखेल र पुलचोकमा अद्यापि छ । यौटा पिमबहालमा भएको विश्वास छ । तर जग्गा अतिक्रमणबाट अस्तित्वमा छैन ।

सम्राट अशोकको धम्मविजयको अभियान नेपालमा पनि प्रत्यक्ष परेको छ ।? अशोक चैत्य नेपालमा पनि विद्यमान छ । दोलखामा रहेको ढुंगाको कलात्मक चैत्यहरुलाई पनि जनबोलीमा अशोक चैत्यः नै भनिन्छ ।महान सम्राट अशोकले धम्मविजय कै सिलसिलामा नेपालमा पनि? चैत्यहरु निर्माण गरेर बुद्ध र धम्मको प्रचारमा उल्लेखनीय योगदान गरेका छन् । प्रत्येक बर्ष आश्विन शुक्लपक्ष दशमीका दिन नेपालमा पनिअशोक शस्त्रत्याग विजय दिवस मनाइन्छ । संयोगले यो दिन हिन्दुहरुको विजयादशमी कै दिन पर्नेभए पनि प्रबुद्ध बौद्धहरु सम्राट अशोकको धम्मविजय दिवसका रुपमा? सभा समारोहका साथ मनाउँछन् ।

संदर्भ सामग्रीहरुः

१.आचार्य भिक्षु अमृतानन्द लिखित बुद्धकालीन राजाहरु ।

२.,,????? ,,????? ,,?????? ,,??????सम्राट अशोक??? ।

३.इतिहासविद भुवनलाल प्रधान लिखित लुम्बिनी संबन्धी पुस्तकहरु ।

४.भिक्षु सुदर्शन लिखित? लुम्बिनी संबन्धित पुस्तकहरु? ।

५.डा.भीमराव अम्बेदकर लिखित पुस्तकहरु ।

६.भदन्त आनन्द कौशल्यायन लिखित पुस्तकहरु? ।

७.बिभिन्न अन्तरराष्टीय तथा राष्टीय बौद्धसम्मेलनमा प्रस्तुत कार्यपत्रहरु ।

८.राष्टिय दैनिक गोरखापत्र,कान्तिपुर,दि राइजिंग नेपाल,मधुपर्क मासिक,?एवं देशी विदेशी

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October 9, 2016

किराँत प्रदेशमा बलात् थोपरिएको चाड दशैं

Posted by?The Himalayan Voice:

[राजा पृथ्वीनारायणका पालादेखि स्थानीय प्रशासनिक एजेन्ट बनाई राखिएका वल्लो र माझ?किराँतका अमाली,?राई,?मझया,?जिमिदार,?तालुकदार,?थरी मुखिया आदि र पल्लो किराँत प्रदेशका किपटिया लिम्बू सुब्बालाई बडादसैँमा पशुपक्षीको मारहानी दुर्गा पूजा गर्न प्रलोभन सहित वाध्य तुल्याइएको?थियो। उनीहरूलाई?दसैँमा आ-आफ्नो रैतीका घरमा काटिने बोका,?खसीका फिलो दसैँ सिसार लिन पाउने र आफूहरूले दुर्गा पूजा गरी दसैँ मानेबापत रैतीबाट जिन्सी वा नगद असुल गरी खान पाउने लालमोहर गरिदिईएको?थियो?। वि. सं. १८७७ सालमा राजा राजेन्द्रले माझ किराँतका जिमिदारलाई रैतीहरूबाट बेठी बेगार (रकम वा खेतालाबापत ज्याला नदिई लगाइने काम) सिसार (टाउको वा फिलो) आदि सित्तै खान पाउनेगरी गरिदिएको लालमोहरमा एक ठाउँमा लेखिएको छः?गाउँ १ को दसैँया भेडा मार वलकका बोको १ के रूपया १ खाडपूजाको घरही चावल (चामल) माना एकका हिसाबले (अमालीलाई) तिर्नु?।?यस लालमोहरको आधारबाट सामन्ती मनोवृत्तिका राई अमाली र लिम्बूवानका सुब्बाहरूले आआफ्नो सोझा सिधा रैतीहरूबाट यस्ता दसैँया दैदस्तुर जिप्टाएर असुल गरी खाने प्रलोभनमा उनीहरूमाथि दसैँ संस्कार ठगीखाने भाँडोको रूपमा बलपूर्बक लादेर ल्याईएको प्रष्ट हुन्छ।]

लेखक मन्जुल याक्थुम्बा

कैराँत देशले परिचित नेपालमा आर्यहरूको आगमन अगाडि देशभरि नै र किराँत प्रदेशभरि चाहिँ (साङ्गापूर्व,?मेचीपश्चिम) शाहकाल अगाडि दसैँ भन्ने शब्द बिलकुल अपरिचित थियो। भारतबाट प्रबेश गर्दा आफू सँगै भित्र्याइएको दसैँलाई यी आर्य जातिकाले लाखौँ पशुपक्षीहरूको बध गरेर अविर,?दही,?चामलको रातो टीका र जमरा लगाई नेपालमा कैयौँ दिनसम्म मनाउने गर्छन् भने यस चाडको उत्पत्ति भएको देश भारतमा चाहिँ त्यस्तो रक्तपातपूर्ण कार्य नगरी दुर्गाको मूर्ति बनाई सात्विक पूजा अर्चना गरिन्छ। जुनसुकै विषयमा पनि कुरा प्रष्ट पार्नुपर्दा सप्रमाण उल्लेख गरिदिँदा जनमानसमा भरपर्दो विश्वास हुन्छ। अतः?दशैं??भन्ने चाड?किराँत?प्रदेशमा बलात थोपरिएको हो भन्ने कुरा निम्न लिखित ऐतिहासिक एवम् धार्मिक तथ्यले प्रष्ट पारेको छ।

१. ऐतिहासिक तथ्य

क) रणबहादुर शाह र ५२ सुब्बाहरूः

पान्थर क्षेत्र भारत,?सिक्किम र तिब्बतको सीमानानजिक परेकाले त्यसताका विदशी सेनाहरूबाट बारम्बार आक्रमण भइरहन्थ्यो। पान्थरका ५२ जना सुब्बाहरू भेला भएर शत्रुहरूको सामना आफैंले गर्नका लागि काठमाडौँ आई राजा रणबहादुर शाहसँग हात हतियार मागे। यङयाङ सुब्बाको नेतृत्वमा आएका ५२ सुब्बाहरूलाई राजा रणबहादुरले पनि ढाल,?तरबार,?खुँडा,?त्रिशूल,?नगरा निशान,?बन्दुक,?कर्नाल,?शङ्ख,?डमरु,?नरसिङ्गा आदिकासाथ दसैँको नवमीमा मौलो थापी बलि पूजा गर्नुपर्ने दसैँया संस्कृति पनि लादी पठाएकाले ती ५२ सुब्बाहरू काठमाडौँबाट फर्केपछि दसैँमा याङरूपको टुँडीखेलमा यङयाङ सुब्बाको मातहतमा ५२ वटा मौलोहरू गाडी सम्पूर्ण हातहतियार र निशान पूजाका साथ नगरा,?बाजागाजा बजाएर उत्सव मनाउने चलन बसाए । तर,?२०२१ सालमा भूमि सुधार लागू भएपछि आफ्नो माटोमाथिको अधिकार एकपक्षीय रूपले हनन् भएको महसुस गरी लिम्बूवान क्षेत्रमा दसैँ मान्नुको औचित्य समाप्त भयो।

ख) रणबहादुर शाहबाट दसैँया कर असुली प्रारम्भः

स्वस्ति श्री मन महाराजाधिराज कस्य रुक्का आगे श्री फागो राय श्री देउ राय के हिङवा खोला सिद्धिपुर वाधा खोला उत्तर तेरा बाजे,?जिजुका खायल जमिन खेत प्रजा गाउँ मकुवानी हिन्दूपतिले बक्स्याको रीतिथिति दण्डकण्ड अपुताली चाक चकुई छिनहारी रहता बहता सब अङ्क माफ बक्स्याको रहेछ सो हामी पनि दसैँको भाग सुब्बा पिछे रु ५ साउन्या फागु समेत राज अङ्कबाहेक माफ गरी बक्स्यौँ हाम्रा निमकको सोझो रही आफ्ना थिति जानी भोग्य गर इति सम्बत १९३९ साल माघ वदी ६ रोज शुभम्।

यो लिखतबाट?किराँतको भाग सुब्बापिच्छे रु. ५ साउन्या फागु समेत राजअङ्क (राजकीय कर) नयाँ करप्रणाली थपिनुले (किराँतहरू) लिम्बूहरू शाहीवंशी राजतन्त्रअगाडि नै दसैँ चाड मान्दैनथे भन्ने कुरा प्रष्टै हुन्छ। दसैँमा सुब्बापिच्छे रु. ५ लगाउनुको तात्पर्य अझ यसरी प्रष्ट हुन्छ,?दुर्गाहाङ याक्खाराईको लेखाईबाट गैरहिन्दू प्रदेशका किरात जनसमुदायमा पनि शाही इष्टदेवी दुर्गाको पाठपूजा गराउन नवदुर्गाको महिमा स्तुतियुक्त बडादसैँलाई राष्ट्रव्यापी चाड पर्व तुल्याउने उद्देश्यले यो हिन्दू संस्कृतिलाई राज्यशक्ति लगाएर लादिएको प्रष्ट प्रमाण हुन्छ।

राजा पृथ्वीनारायणका पालादेखि स्थानीय प्रशासनिक एजेन्ट बनाई राखिएका वल्लो र माझ?किराँतका अमाली,?राई,मझया,?जिमिदार,?तालुकदार,?थरी मुखिया आदि र पल्लो किराँत प्रदेशका किपटिया लिम्बू सुब्बालाई बडादसैँमा पशुपक्षीको मारहानी दुर्गा पूजा गर्न प्रलोभन सहित वाध्य तुल्याइएको?थियो। उनीहरूलाई?दसैँमा आ-आफ्नो रैतीका घरमा काटिने बोका,?खसीका फिलो दसैँ सिसार लिन पाउने र आफूहरूले दुर्गा पूजा गरी दसैँ मानेबापत रैतीबाट जिन्सी वा नगद असुल गरी खान पाउने लालमोहर गरिदिईएको?थियो?। वि. सं. १८७७ सालमा राजा राजेन्द्रले माझ किराँतका जिमिदारलाई रैतीहरूबाट बेठी बेगार (रकम वा खेतालाबापत ज्याला नदिई लगाइने काम) सिसार (टाउको वा फिलो) आदि सित्तै खान पाउनेगरी गरिदिएको लालमोहरमा एक ठाउँमा लेखिएको छः?गाउँ १ को दसैँया भेडा मार वलकका बोको १ के रूपया १ खाडपूजाको घरही चावल (चामल) माना एकका हिसाबले (अमालीलाई) तिर्नु?।?यस लालमोहरको आधारबाट सामन्ती मनोवृत्तिका राई अमाली र लिम्बूवानका सुब्बाहरूले आआफ्नो सोझा सिधा रैतीहरूबाट यस्ता दसैँया दैदस्तुर जिप्टाएर असुल गरी खाने प्रलोभनमा उनीहरूमाथि दसैँ संस्कार ठगीखाने भाँडोको रूपमा बलपूर्बक लादेर ल्याईएको प्रष्ट हुन्छ।

ग) राजेन्द्र विक्रम शाह र दशैंमा राँगा बोका काट्नै पर्ने टण्टाको अन्त्यः

स्वस्ति श्री मन महाराजाधिराज कस्य रुक्का आगे अरूण पूर्व मेची पश्चिमभर लिम्बुवानका सुब्बा गैह्र जुन ४३ सालदेखि ६१ सालसम्म दसैँमा सुब्बाहरूलाई राँगा काट्नमा ट48टा लागेको थिएन। ६२ सालमा हेमकर्ण थापा सुब्बा भै आउँदा तिमीहरूले राँगा काट्न पर्छ भनी ट48टा लगाउँदा ६२ सालदेखि ट48टा लागिरहेछ अव उप्रान्त हाम्रा सावगाछले राँगा काट्न सक्दैनौँ अघिदेखि चलिआएको हाम्रै थिति चलाइ बक्स्या हामीहरू खुशी छौँ भनी काजी नरसिंह थापामार्फत् हाम्रा हजुरमा जाहेर भयो। तसर्थ अब उप्रान्त अघिदेेखि थुमथुम थिति मोहरबमोजिम लिई दसैँ गरी राँगा काट्नु सुब्बाको घरमा सक हुनेले राँगा बोका काट्नु सक नहुनेले नकाट्नु भनी थिति बाँधी बक्स्यौँ इति सम्बत १८९१ साल मिति बैशाख वदी १४ रोज ४ शुभम्।

वि. सं. १८४३ देखि १८६१ सालसम्म दशैंमा मौलो थापी बोको बलि दिई पूजा गरेमा पनि हुनेमा वि. सं. १८६२ सालमा हेमकर्ण थापा सुब्बा भै लिम्बुवानमा गएपछि को मौलोमा सुब्बाहरूले राँगा काट्नै पर्ने टन्टा लगाएको कुरा राजेन्द्रविक्रम शाहमा जाहेर हुँदा सक्नेले राँगा बोका काटनु र नसक्नेले नकाटे पनि हुन्छ भनी लिखित प्रमाण पाएपछि मात्र राँगा बोको काट्ने झन्झटबाट सुब्बाहरू मुक्त भए तापनि दसैँया शोषण चाहिँ यथावत नै कायम भयो।

घ) लिम्बूवानमा तिलिङ्गा आतङ्कः

एकधर्म,?एक संस्कृति,?एक भाषा कायम गर्न तथाकथित एकिकरणको सिलसिलामा किराँत प्रदेशमा विभिन्न एजेन्टहरू राई अमाली सुब्बाहरूबाट दसैँ बापत दैदस्तुर सरकारद्वारा असुलियो भनेे ती एजेन्टहरूद्वारा नै रैतीहरूको शोषण गर्ने कार्य पनि निर्वाध रूपमा विकसित हुँदै गयो। यो दसैँया पर्वलाई त्यसताका लिम्बुवानमा तैनाथ गरिएका (खटाइएका) तिलिङ्गाहरूले (सिपाहीहरूले) राई अमाली,?सुब्बाहरूको घरको मूलढोकाको दायाँ बायाँ भित्तामा मानिसका हात खुट्टाका रक्तरञ्जित पञ्जा भए नभएको जाँचबुझ गरेर दसैँ माने नमानेको प्रमाणित गर्नु पर्थ्यो। यदि उनीहरूको घरदैलाको दायाँबायाँ भित्तामा मारको छाप लागेको नभेटिएमा त्यस्तो राई अमाली,?सुब्बालाई आर्थिकदेखि शारीरिक द48ड लगायत जघन्य अपराध सरह सजाय हुन्थ्यो। अब अमाली सुभाङ्गी प्रथा किरात प्रदेशमा उन्मूलन भैसके तापनि दसैँको बेला आफ्नो घरमा मार काटिएको पशु पंक्षीको रगत हात खुट्टाको पञ्जामा लगाई दैलोको दायाँ बायाँ भित्तामा छाप लगाउने चलन भने यदाकदा अझैं पनि देखिन्छ। त्यसताका ती तिलिङ्गाहरूको आतङ्क सम्झेर लिम्बूवानका बूढापाकाहरू अहिले पनि त्यो त्राशदिपूर्ण कथाको वर्णन गर्छन्।

ङ) दशैं नमान्दा रिदामा र रामलीहाङ शहीद भएः

किराँत?प्रदेशमा दशैँया पर्वलाई निरन्तरता दिँदै जाने सिलसिलामा श्री ३ जङ्गबहादुरको शासनकालमा धनकुटाको पालो आयो। त्यसताका छ थर थुम धनकुटामा आठपहरिया राईहरूमा नेतृत्व गर्ने रिदामा र रामलीहाङ दुई साहसी पुरुषहरूले दसैँ हाम्रो चाड होइन,?हामी दसैँ मान्दैनौँ भनी प्रतिवाद गरे। यो कुरा जङ्गबहादुर राणामा जाहेर भएपछि रिदामा र रामलीहाङको बध गरेर तिनका अनुयायीहरूलाई धनकुटामा रहेका सेनाद्वारा घेराउ गरी राँगा,?बोका काटी ठूलो भोज गरी जमरा,?टीका लगाइदिई दसैँ मान्न वाध्य गराए। तर त्यस बलजफ्ती कार्यको परिणाम ज्यादै नराम्रो निक्ल्यो। हामी सबैजना बलिदान हुन तयार छौँ तर हाम्रो संस्कार छोडेर बलात लादिएको दसैँ चाड मान्न तयार छैनौँ भनी ठूलो विद्रोह गरेपछि अर्को वर्षदेखि दसैँ चाड मान्न वाध्य गराउन सकिएन। त्यहाँका आठपहरिया किरात राईहरूले आजसम्म पनि दसैँ तिहार मान्दैनन् यिनीहरूका महिलाहरूले आफ्नो पहिरन मेख्ली (म्याक्सी जस्तो) लगाउन अझै पनि छोडेका छैनन्। मङ्सीर पूर्णेदेखि औँसीसम्म ढोल झ्याम्टा वादनका साथ नाचगान र खानपिनमा पाहुनाहरूको आदानप्रदान गरेर धुमधामले १५ दिनसम्म आफ्नो मौलिक राष्ट्रिय चाड मनाउछन्। यही चाड नै हामी समस्त किरातहरूको मौलिक राष्ट्रिय चाड पनि हो। साँच्चै भन्ने हो भने यिनै आठपहरिया किरात राईहरू मात्र किरात प्रदेशमा आफ्नो मौलिक चाडलाई बचाइराख्न सफल भएका छन्। धन्य हुन् यी धनकुटाका खाँटी आठपहरिया किरात राईबन्धुहरू??यिनीहरूको जति प्रशंसा गरे पनि पुग्दैन।

२.?धार्मिक?तथ्यः

हिन्दूहरूको वेद,?बौद्धहरूको धम्मपद,?इसाईहरूको बाइबल,?इस्लामहरूको कुरान झैं किराँतहरूको मूल धर्मग्रन्थ मुन्धुम हो। इसाई धर्ममा उल्लिखित कुरा बौद्ध धर्मावलम्बीले र इस्लाम धर्मका कुरा हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बीहरूले नमान्ने जस्तै ती सबै धर्महरूमा उल्लिखित कुराहरू किराँत धर्मावलम्बीहरूले पनि मान्दैनन्। किनभने प्रत्येक धर्मावलम्बीले आआफ्नो धर्मको महानतामा गर्व गर्छन् र आ-आफ्नो धर्मग्रन्थले निर्दिष्ट गरेको नियम तथा अनुशासनको पालनगरी जीवन यापन गरेका हुन्छन्। नेपालमा शाहकालभन्दा हजारौँ वर्ष अगाडिदेखि किराँत प्रदेशमा दशैं? भन्ने चाड अपरिचित थियो भन्ने कुरा ऐतिहासिक सवुद प्रमाणहरूबाट प्रष्ट भैसकेको छ। अव धार्मिक तथ्यको आधारमा पनि यो चाड किराँतहरूको थिएन,?होइन भन्ने कुरा यसरी प्रष्ट हुन्छ।

क) मुन्धुममा राम र रावणको कथा छैनः

हिन्दू ग्रन्थ रामायणमा रावणद्वारा सीता हरण भएपछि राम र रावणको युद्धमा रामले रावणलाई बध गरी विजय प्राप्त गरेकोले सो विजयोल्लासको प्रतीक दसैँ चाड हिन्दूहरूले मनाउने गरेको कथा जोडिएको छ। हिन्दूग्रन्थका आर्य पात्रहरूको युद्धकथासँग हामी अनार्य किरातहरूको कुनै सम्बन्ध नभएको र हाम्रो मुन्धुममा कहीं पनि त्यस्तो कुरा उल्लेख नभएकोले यो दसैँ चाड किरातहरूको हुँदै होइन भन्ने प्रमाणित हुन्छ।

ख) मुन्धुममा नवदुर्गा र महिषासुरको कथा छैनः

हिन्दूहरूको देवी भागवत ग्रन्थमा नवदुर्गा र महिषासुरको युद्धमा महिषासुरको बध नवदुर्गाद्वारा गरिएकोले त्यही विजयोल्लासको सम्झना स्वरूप दसैँ चाड मान्न शुरु गरिएको कथा आउँछ। तर त्यस्तो कथा र नवदुर्गा महिषासुर भन्ने शब्द हाम्रो मुन्धुममा उल्लेख नभएकोले यो दसैँ चाड हामी किरातहरूको हुँदै होइन भन्ने प्रमाणित हुन्छ।

ग) मुन्धुममा दशैँ शब्दै छैनः

हामी किराँतहरूको मौलिक धर्मग्रन्थ मुन्धुममा दसैँ भन्ने शब्द छदै छैन। त्यसकारण यो दसैँ चाड हामी किराँतहरूको हुदै होइन भन्ने प्रमाणित हुन्छ। यो दशैं? चाड किरात प्रदेशमा शाहकालमा सरकारले बलात थोपरेको भन्ने कुरामा शङ्कै छैन। यो चाड हाम्रो हुदै होइन भन्ने ऐतिहासिक एवम् धार्मिक तथ्यका आधारमा प्रष्ट हुँदाहुदै पनि जान्ने बुझ्नेले देखाएको सही बाटोबाट नहिँडी दनदन बलिरहेको विशाल आगोको ज्वालामा पुतली होमिए झैं हाम्रा किराँत बन्धुहरू होमिन चाहन्छन् भने भीरबाट लडेको गाईलाई माङ माङ मात्र भन्न सकिन्छ,?काँध थाप्न सकिन्न। विवशता र वाध्यतावश् बलात भिराइएको दशैंरूपी जुवालाई फ्याँकेर आफ्नो मौलिक अस्तित्वको खोजी नगर्ने किरातलाई कसरी जीउँदो किराँत? भन्ने??यस प्रसङ्गमा दुर्गाहाङ याखाराई एक ठाउँमा यसरी लेख्नुहुन्छ?? “यो दसैँया संस्कार मान्नेवित्तिकै किराँतहरू हिन्दू वर्ण व्यवस्थाको (वर्ण विभाजन भित्रको) सबैभन्दा हेय र तुच्छ शूद्रवर्णमा स्वतः गणना हुने हुन्छन्। किनकि नेपालको जनजाति,?आदिबासी पश्चिमी नेपालका गुरुङ,?मगर तथा पूर्वका राई,?लिम्बूबाट नेपाली राजाहरूको शुभराज्याभिषेक नामक वैदिक पूजाहरूमा तयार गरिएको शाही अभिलेख अनुसार शूद्रमै गणना गरिएको प्रमाण खडा छ। यसैले अबका जनजाति,?आदिवासीले आफ्नो छुट्टै अस्तित्व र आत्मसम्मान खातिर धार्मिक,सांस्कृतिक दासत्व एवम् जातीय हीनताको प्रमाणपत्र स्वरूप दसैँया??विजया टीकालाई??निधारभरि? टाँसेर प्रदर्शनी गराउन चाहदैनन् भने त्यो उनीहरूको आस्थाको कुरा हो। उनीहरू दसैँमा टीका नलगाउन स्वतन्त्र छन्। उनीहरूको यस्तो आचरणमा अरूले विरोध र आश्चर्य मान्नु पर्ने उचित देखिँदैन। उनीहरू हिन्दू बनेर??शूद्र वर्गमा??नै रही अझै ब्राम्हणपूजन गरिरहुन् भन्ने स्वघोषित हिन्दू उच्च जातिका मानिसहरूबाट दुराशय राखिनु पनि हुन्न।”

आफूलाई मन परेको कुनै पनि धर्म संस्कार ग्रहण गर्ने नैसर्गिक अधिकार र स्वतन्त्रता प्रत्येक ब्यक्तिलाई छ। तर बिवशता र बाध्यतामा पारेर आफ्नो धर्म संस्कार अरूलाई बलात लाद्ने अधिकार कसैलाई छैन। आफ्नो अस्तित्वको खोजी गर्नु प्रत्येक ब्यक्तिलाई अधिकार छ। दसैँलाई बहिस्कार गर्नु हामी कसैलाई भन्दैनौँ तर दसैँ हामीमा बलात् लादिएको हो र यो चाड हाम्रो थिदै थिएन,?हुँदै होइन भनी सबुत प्रमाणका साथ ठोकुवा गर्ने अधिकार हामीलाई छ। अतः ऐतिहासिक एवम् धार्मिक तथ्य तथा सबुत प्रमाणका आधारमा दसैँ चाड हामी अनार्य जनजाति,?आदिवासी किरातहरूको थिदैथिएन,?हुदैहोइन भन्ने कुरा किरात लगायत सम्पूर्ण जनजाति,?आदिवासी बन्धुहरूले बुझदिनु पर्‍यो,मनन् गरी दिनु पर्‍यो,?प्रत्येक जनजाति,?आदिबासीको घरदैलोमा सन्देश पुर्‍याउनु पर्‍यो।

१.?माथि उल्लिखित अकाट्य प्रमाणहरूको आधारमा दसैँ चाड हामी किरातहरूको थिदैँथिएन हुँदै होइन भन्ने निष्कर्षमा पुगिएकाले नै हामीमा बलात् लादिएको हिन्दूमात्रको दसैँ चाड मान्न हामीले २०४६ सालदेखि नै छोड्दै आएका हौँ। यो कार्य पूर्वाग्रह,?घृणा र द्धेषवश भएको होइन। किनभने यस देशका सम्पूर्ण जात/जाति र धर्मावलम्बीहरूसँग सदभाव कायम गरेर राष्ट्रिय विकासको मूल प्रवाहमा योगदान पुर्‍याउने भन्ने चुम्लुङको मूल नीति छ। त्यसैले हामीले दसैँ बहिस्कार पनि भनेका छैनौँ। मान्नु नमान्नु आफ्नो स्वेच्छाको कुरा हो। तर दसैँ चाडचाहिं हाम्रो थिदैँथिएन हुँदैहोइन भनेर ठोकुवाका साथ भनेका छौँ,?भन्छौँ पनि।

२.?आफ्नो मौलिक चाड हुँदाहुदै हिन्दू मात्रको दसैँचाड किरातहरूले मान्नै पर्छ भन्ने छैन भने हामीले आफ्नो चाडलाई महत्व दिँदा हिन्दूहरू रिसाउनु पर्ने कुरा पनि छैन। नजान्दाको अवस्थामा वालकले फोहोर टिपेर मुखमा हाल्छ तर ऊ जान्ने बु137ने भएपछि फोहोर टिपेर खाँदैन। त्यस्तै कति कुरा हामीले लहै लहैमा अङ्गाल्यौँ भने कति कुरा वलात् पनि ग्रहण गर्नबाध्य भयौँ। अव हामीले कुरा बुझ्यौ । आफ्नो बाटो लाग्यौँ। किरात प्रदेशमा बस्ने कुनै पनि अल्पसङ्ख्यक हिन्दूलाई हामीले हाम्रो किरात चाड मान्नु पर्छ कहिल्यै भनेनौँ र भन्दैनौँ पनि। तर किरातहरूले जानीबुझी दसैँ मान्न छोड्दा यी हिन्दूहरू किन रुष्ट हुन्छन् र नाना भाति प्रसङ्गहरू जोडेर किरातहरूप्रति दुराशय ओकल्छन्??यस कार्यले उनीहरूको असहिष्णुता,?अमिलनसारिता र विखण्डनवादी नीति छर्लङ्गिगएन र?

३.?परंपरादेखि हामीले मानी आएको मङ्सिर पूर्णिमामा पर्ने लिम्बूहरूको??चासोक तङनाम??राईहरूको??साकेला?याख्खाहरूको??चासुवा??र सुनुवारहरूको??फोलष्याँदर??मौलिक किरात चाड (न्वागीपूजा)लाई किरात चाड मनाउन त्रयोदशी,चतुर्दशी र पूर्णेसम्म ३ तीन दिन किराँत चाड घोषणा गरी अधिराज्यव्यापी विदादिने व्यवस्थाको लागि चारै किराँत? संस्थाहरूको संयुक्त प्रयासमा को सरकार समक्ष माग प्रस्तुत गरिएकोमा मङ्सिर पूर्णेका दिन एक दिन मात्र अधिराज्यका सम्पूर्ण किराँत धर्मावलम्बीहरूलाई विदा दिनेगरी को सरकारबाट किराँत? चाडको घोषणा भएको कुरा २०५८ साल पुस १४ गतेको विभिन्न सञ्चार माध्यम र खण्ड? ५१ संख्या ५० नेपाल राजपत्र भाग ४ मिति २०५८/१२/२६ को राजपत्र समेतबाट प्रचारप्रसार भएको कुरा सर्वविदितै छ।

४.?विभिन्न जातजाति/जनजाति आदिवासी र उत्पीडित/ दलितहरूको साझा फूलबारी हाम्रो नेपालमा सत्ताधारी हिन्दू धर्मावलम्बीहरूको लागि अनगिन्ती चाडहरूले मान्यता प्राप्त गरिरहेकै छन्। त्यसमा पनि गौरापर्व मनाउन सुदुर पश्चिमेली हिन्दूहरूले थप १ दिन छुट्टै विदा पनि पाएका छन्। प्रजातन्त्रको पुनर्वहाली भए पश्चात तराईबासीहरूले?छठपर्व??इस्लामहरूले??इद पर्व??भोटे,?सेर्पा,?तामाङ,?गुरुङहरूले??ल्होसार पर्व??मनाउन १/१ दिन विदा पाएजस्तै हामी किराँत? धर्मावलम्बीहरूले पनि किरात चाड छुट्टै विदा पाउँनु पर्छ ।

It has become fashionable among some ethnic writers to emphasize their
differences with other people to the deliberate neglect of the potent
forces that bind them together in multi-ethnic Nepal. While the issue
of how various people came to adopt Dashain as part of their cultural
repertoire may be academically interesting, the fact that has to be
respected is that point isthey observe Dashain as part of their annual
calendar of festivities, although each cultural groups observe them in
their own way that has been traditionally sanctioned. Kantipur daily
has just now put out a long article under the title of “Kasko Dasahin
Kasto” (22 Ashoj 2073)? that surveys how the festivity is observed
among various people in the country. The one single message that comes
out of this useful write-up is that Dashain as a major festivity is
widely shared by almost all caste ethnic groups in the country and
that the way it is observed is very specific to the cultural
traditions of particular communities. Besides, the practices
themselves of all the individual communities too are constantly
changing over years, decades and centuries. Two interesting instances
come from the same Kantipur write-up. One of the ethnic groups in
eastern Nepal tarai are the Santhals, earlier known as Sattar locally,
who are one of the major ethnic groups in eastern India, mainly in
Bihar, Jharkhand and Orissa. Their traditional religion is ancestral
spirit worship. However, in Nepal, due to sustained and close
interaction with other caste ethnic groups, they generally observe
Dashain too but did not put tika on the forehead. However, due also to
inter-ethnic marriages taking place between Santhals and Pahadi caste
ethnic groups in recent years, they have also started putting tika on
the forehead. Similarly, according to the same write-up the Kirat Rais
of Khotang, traditionally known as Maajh Kirat, too observe Dashain
with great fanfare. They maintain that, although various opinion about
Dasahin among the Kirats are making rounds in recent time, they
observe the festivity because it has been coming down from Sanatan
times. In short, the explanation of the current state of cultural
practices among various ethnic and caste groups including the
observance of Dashain festival are not to be found in the ancient
scriptures or Mundhum or Mahabharata The people’s practices have come
a long long way since those scriptures were written hundreds or
thousands of years ago. So, to be saying that Mundhum does not require
the observance of Dashain among the Kirats and that they were imposed
on them is tantamount to trying to live in the past. Since our status
of education and literacy is still quite low in the country, most
people are unable to make dispassionate analysis of their own. While
such write-ups can never pass as a work of respectable scholarship, it
could even be inspired by the sinister intent of spreading
inter-ethnic discord which some external forces are hell bent on
promoting it in Nepal.
Bihari Krishna Shrestha

____

Dear Gerllnerji,

Please check it again. On 19th Mangshir 2057 we had told Magars that their religious identity would be Buddhists. I  wish to correct my previous data.

I have copied this messsage to some of the prominent Magar Bandhus in Nepal also.

Thanks namaskar to you.

Bhai K. Rana
Cambridge, USA
____________________________________________

— “B. K. Rana” <bk_rana@yahoo.com> wrote:
Dear Gellnerji,

Yes, we had declared in 1999 that Magars’ religious identity would be Buddhist. That was done on Mangsir 19, 2058 amidst a grand closing session of the three day national training camp in Kirtipur.

We had formed a 9 member task force named as: MAGAR SAMAJ RA RASTRIYA JANAGANA KARYADAL 2058 [Magar Society and National Census Task Force 2001] Ex. Minister Gore B. Khapangi was the Convenor, Ex-minister N. S. Pun was a member and had donated  a handsome amount of money. Among other members were minister Bala Ram Gharti Magar, MP Fatik B. Thapa, ex-Secretary Tek B. Thapa, , Lank M. Roka Magar, Khem Lal Thapa, I. B. Thapa and I was the Member-Secretary.
Yes, we had an impressive national training camps across the country. I had even gone to Libang, Rolpa and conducted a two day training program.
Thanks,
Rana
David Gellner<david.gellner@anthropology.oxford.ac.uk> wrote:
Dear BK – ji,
I have been told that one of the Magar organizations maybe the Nepal
 Magar Sangh? — had a conference in 1997 and passed a resolution that all
Magars should henceforth be Buddhist. Do you know if this is accurate?  And if so, how
can I get a copy of the resolution?
best wishes,
David Gellner

Dear Magarbandhus,

Yesterday I happened to be one of the guests in an international cultural program. The announcer, from Nepal Cultural Corporation, introduced Sorathi dance belonging to Gurung community. I am not expert, but I have been told since early childhood that this dance belongs to Magar community. Whose dance is Sorathi?

Gpthapa, 4 jul 2005

“Dr.Kulesh Thapa” <phosp@healthnet.org.np>  Tue, 5 Jul 2005 07:56:35 +0500

Dear Dai,

This is from the internet.

Maruni
The word ‘maruni ‘ means dancres . This dances symbolises the divine play between the legendary Lord Krishna and Rhada or is reminiscent of goddes Durga ’s expoilts  symbolising  the victory of hte good over evil . It held on the occasions like Dasain ,Diwali and Teej . The dancre is amale in feminie grab.

Ghatu
Ghatu dance is very popular in the Gurung village of the mountain regions , which are situated below the Himalayas . It is staged to please  ,or virgin goddesses    . This dance , which is specialization of the woman folk, has nothing to do with males. Virgin girls participating in the dance  age from ten to twenty five , and are known as other Ghatunis. they specialise in the dance as lon gas other Ghatunis, equally adept in the skill of their dance, do not emerge. They dance in in twos or in fours. interestingly  there ia nightly test of their cooking skills. Ghatu is noted specially for the art of dance since it is marked by great variety and expressiveness in its movement as in a ballet .the whirling of the  Ghatunis ,the movement of their bands, the twirling of their fingers and loins, the bending of their heads , the look of their eyes and the rhythm of their feet exhibit art and beauty .the Ghatunis don’t sing but present the vivid pictures of some event by means of gesticulations. Allthese account for  the categorization of this dance classical instead of folk. Ghatu dance is rife in the Gurung villages of the mountainous region from Shree Panchami to Vaisakh Chandi Poorni.

Kauda dance
Famous in Annapurna region , the Kaudha dance is a typical Gurung dance . It is also popular among the Magars  of Lumbini, Dhaulagiri, and Gandaki zones in the west . It is specially performs in Maghe Sakranti. The whole night performance of Kauda, starting from 5 P .M .and expending up to 7:00in the morning ,is delighfully gratifying to the audience . the boys sing songs playing Khaijadi, Manjura and Chap.  and the girls dance wearing attractive ethnic costume. the whole dance is highly rhythmic and sets one’s legs  tapping  while the eyes remain engrossed in the shift movement of the dancer

Bhairava dance
The Bhairava dance, which is consists of Bhairava , Mahakali , Barai, Kumari Gnomes and ghosts , is perfomed during Indra Yatra .  These character are neither offered worship or they put on masks. This dance lasts up to one and one group of tile -bakers In Pokhara, Newar Community performs this dance in every 6 years celebrating the big festival. Basically, Bhairav Dance  is performed in Bhairav tole, Bandhyabasini, Bhimsen Sthan, Ganesh Sthan, Narayan sthan of Pokhara.The Bhairava dance , which is consists of Bhairava , Mahakali , Barai, Kumari Gnomes and ghosts , is perfomed during Indra Yatra.  These character are neither offered worship or they put on masks. This dance lasts up to one and one group of tile -bakers In Pokhara, Newar Community performs this dance in every 6 years celebrating the big festival. Basically, Bhairav Dance  is performed in Bhairav tole, Bandhyabasini, Bhimsen Sthan, Ganesh Sthan, Narayan sthan of Pokhara.

Rodighar
Rodighar serves the Purpose of nightclubs. Rodighars are widely visited by the young flok of both sexes among  the Gurungs and the Magars in western hill sides of Nepal. Enveloped in the romantic atmosphere pervading such club-house, the simple village folk exchange  their warm unsophisticated feeling which sophisticated well out of the depth of their herds for the medium of dialogue folk songs versed in musical pattern impromptu. The Rodighars  which can be identify as the forums of the love affairs, constitute of the center trysts where the lovers try to fit in with their hearts before their union takes place. In this way Rodighar have become conventional institution where couples met, fall in love and then elope or tie the nuptial bondage all incited by the folk songs without the necessity of any go-between and at times even to the exclusion of the ritual marriage system.

Chutka
In some villages, especially in the Magar villages, this very Chutku dance is displayed in a developed form. Well-decorated and in their best attires, young women dance making double pairs, four-fold pairs or even six-fold pairs in accompaniment with Madal (a kind of drum) while there is one man to start the and a group to catch it in a choral voice. Such dances, often with artistic performances, are generally sentimental and performed on special occasions. These can be said as the ballet dance of Nepal.

Major festivals celebrated in the Kathmandu valley

Nepal is known for its continuous festivals. Nepalese are said to observe more festival then there are days in the year. Some of the major and interesting festival are listed below:

Navavarsha
It is Nepalese New Year ’s Day . It usually falls in the second week of April. The  day observe as  a national holiday . People celebrate it with great pomp and show.

Baisakh Poornima(april- may )
As Nepal is a birth place of Lord Buddha , the light of Asia , the triple anniversary of the Buddha’s birth enlightment and death is observed with many colorful ceremonies on this day. People celebrate the occasion with great veneration paying homage to Buddha.

Nagapanchami
This festival fall every year on the fifth day of the bright fortnight of Shrawan (july). This day is celebrated with great feeling and faith. On this particular day the serpant worship begin with the posting of colorful portraits of nags (srepants) on the wall above the main doorways.sweets, cereals, and cow’s milk are offered to nagas and prayed for peace and prosperity.

Janai Purnima
It is a Nepalese festival which unfailingly appears in the scene on full moon day after Shrawan (July) . This is one of the most widely celebrated common festivals of the Buddhists and the Hindus. On this day one can see several Hindus going to Buddhist temples and the Buddhist to  the Hindus temples. One of the main feature of this festival is the binding of Rakshya Bandhan (a sort  of safety -band ) round one’s wrist and  the changing of the Janai (sacred threads ) which  the Brahmins and the chhetris wear round their neck .

Gaijatra (cow festival) (July -August )
It is an carnival- type of festival lasting eight days . Dancing ,singing , comic performance and anything that cause mirth and laughter are its main feature. those people which family members have died during the years send out persons dressed up as a cow to parade the main thoroughfares of the city on the first day of the festival

Krishnastami
it marks the birthday of lord Krishna , one of the incarnations of lord Vishnu and epic hero of the Mahabharata folk dances and songs are usual on occasion.

Teej
the third day of the bright fortnight of Bhadra ( August -September) is popularly known as Teej or Haritalika ,which is a big day of celebration for the Nepalese woman. This is the day ,Parvati ,the daughter of the Pimalayas is said  have won the heart of lord Shiva by dint of her deep devotion and made him accept her as his wife great pleasure . One of the very important aspects of this festival is the fasting in the name of Lord Shiva . It is said that girls who follow the Shastric advice are sure to secure the husbands they wished for. Another interesting aspect of this festival  is feeding of oneself with piecemeal on the proceding day for fasting . It is quit remarkable that  on the following day the fasting  women spend most of their time  singing and going round the temple without any noticeable sign of fatigue.

Dasain  or Durga Puja (September- October)
The Dashain festival is the most  important and the biggest festival of the Nepalese. It lasts for 15 days . It celebrates the triumph of goddess Durga over Mahishasur , a demon who terrorized  the people .  It includes plenty of rituals , animal sacrifices ,feasting and dressing up in one ’s finest  to call on friends and relatives. People go to the temples of Vindyavasini and Bhadrakali as both these goddesses are consider form of Durga. Buffaloes , goats and chicken are sacrificial animals. Animal sacrifice is offered on the ninth day of the festival. The seventh day is celebrated as Fulpati procession , in which a vessel of flowers from Gorkha is paraded around town ,accompanied by local official in the fine clothes, as well as the Gaines, soldiers and priests. On the following full moon , there is a Mela (fair) at island temple of Tal Varahi.

Tihar (Deepawali) (Octobar- November)
It is known as festival of lights. It comes fortnight after Dasain . It is celebrated for days . This festival is held in honour of both Yama, the Goddes of Death, and Laxmi, Lord Vishnu’s wife and the Goddes of Fortune . On this occasion ,houses are illuminated at night and special sweets of various kinds are prepared . The first two days are dedicated to crow and the dog respectively . While the third and fourth days are dedicated to cow and ox respectively. The last day is dedicated to brothers and is called  ‘Bhai Puja’, when sisters honour their brothers with a special, multi- colored tika on the forehead.

Maghe Sakranti (January )
On this day people of Pokhara hold a fair at Dhungesangu, site site of the natural stone bridge. Some people go north beyond  Burjung Khola to the natural hot spring besides the Sati Gandaki. Others go to Tatopani on the kali Gandaki River to its  hot spring to take a dip.

Lhosar
This festival is most impressively observed in the month of February by all the Tibetan speaking and Buddhism professing ethnic population . They organize folk song and dances on this occasion and celebrate the entry on the New Year with great pomp and revelry.

Maha Shivaratri (February – March )
Shivaratri or the night of Lord Shiva is observed in February – March . It is celebrated in the honour of lord Shiva. Many devotees journey to Karputar, on the Madi River east of bagnas Lake for a holy bath and all night meal (fair). People build bonfires for Shiva and join the company of sadhus and other mendicants here for the occasion.

Fagu Purnima (Holi)
Jan -Feb : It is a festival of “playing with color “. One this day one throws the red powder over everyone in sight.In the mountain   villages, Magars and   Gurungs feature various  of Radha Krishna  dances on Holi full- moon night , with young men playing both the parts , in long gown  , wings, tinsel and costume jewellery. Lonal thakalis begin their spring archery tournament at this time .

Ram Nawami
Ram Nawami (also called Chaitra Dasain ) is a graet hindus festival which falls generally on on the 8th and 9th day of the bright fortnight of Chaitra (March 30- April 1 ). this is the day when Devi (Shakti) manifested Herself in her most  celestial – form and so this day observed as Chaitra  Dasain -an auspicios day to worship Davi with great devotion and faith. Rama, an ideal Hindu king is believed to have to obtain  all the merits by dint of his sincere devotion to Davi which enable him to defeat his enemy , Ravan .Pokhara people on this day go to the Vindhyavasini and Bhadrakali temples as well s the military camps to worship and sacrifice animals.

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