Dear Ranaji,
Thanks for the information. You have got plenty of information on the history of Magars and the people of Nepal. I have been sending so many emails to my collegues here but I have received very few replies. May be it is because of their ignorance or lack of interest. It is high time we realize that wishing Magars to be well developed will not be sufficient we will have to work hard and dedicate. I think it is because of our such nature that very little have been done since 2011 BS when Magars tried to get united to re-establish themselves.
Dr. Govind Prasad Thapa
Post Box 12451, Kathmandu, Nepal
Web Site: http://crimejustice.blogspot.com
Original Message
From: Rana 1616
To: Rana 1616
Sent: Friday, April 15, 2005 8:32 PM
Subject: ON MAGAR AND MUKUNDA SEN OF PALPA – Please Check It 2
1) According to Bal Chandra Sharma [NEPALKO AITIHASIK RUPREKHA] Ratna Sen was the last King of Chhitaurgarh, Rajasthan, India.
2) His oldest son Jaya Sen fled and took shelter in Prayag. Jaya Sen’s descendants while again chased by the Muslims arrived ‘Rib+di+kot’, neighboring kingdom of Palpa via Butwal, Rishing and Ghiring. [Magar Kings are cited as ‘Bhure Takure Rajas’ by historians].
3) Sharma has also written that Rudra Sen defeated Palpali King. But who was that Palpali King? Magars? How did the lone Rudra Sen fight with the Palpali King? There is no mentioning at all. Sharma’s history is a biased one, lacks foundation. Unclear history !
4) MUKUNDA SEN is described as a Sen Magar in Naradsmriti Granth [Keshar Library, Kathmandu]. He had attacked Kathmandu twice in 1521 BS. And in Chaitra 11, 1522 BS he attacked and annexed Kirtipur. He is described as MAGAR RAJADHIRAJ MUKUNDA SEN.
5) GOPAL RAJVANSHAVALI also cites SENS as MAGARS. There are some SEN MAGARS in Nepal today.
6) KUSUNDA ORIGIN MYTH: Once upon a time there was a king who had three sons. Upon the death of the father the first son became king. Whatever he did everything turned out unsuccessful. So the second son went to him and argued, “Whatever you did that came out bad so you are no longer King. You live in the jungle begging and hunting”. This is how the oldest son became Kusunda. The second son in turn became the king. Everything he did resulted in good. The king went to offer a pig to Chandi deity. He didn’t find a person to kill the pig. The third son said ‘I will kill it’. And he killed it. The descendants from third son became Magars. The descendants of the second son became Thakuris. [This version seems to be influenced by Shikhar Nath Subedi’s “Thargotra Prabaravali”, a booklet published from Banaras India, could be found in some bookshops in Bhotahiti, Kathmandu].
7) RAJTARANGINI AND ARAMUDI : It is the oldest written authority for the history of various dynasties which ruled KASHMIR from the earliest period down to the time of the author who began to write his chronicle in SHAKA YEAR 1070 [AD 1148 , BS 1204] “Atha Aramudi iti prashiddha mayabi Nepaldeshasya Raja” [AD 782 – 813] [KASMIREITIHAS pp 99]. Prof. Raja Ram Subedi and Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi believe Aramudi as Magar King of Kali Gandaki Area.
8) MAGGWAR BISHAYA: [Nepal Sambat 221 or BS 1157] “Shree Dhanap Nayak Shree Shoab Rane”. Mahesh Raj Panta and Aishowryadhar Sharma recognize him as RANA MAGAR. Dhan Bzra Bazrachayra also recognized Shohab Rane as Rana Magar.
9) ‘VIRSTAMBHA’ – MEMORIAL IN DULLU DAILEKH : Thapa Magars are cited as rulers suggesting that they were also in great numbers. Prof. Ram Niwas Panday believes Khas are descendants of Thapa Magars of Dullu Dailekh. Khas are also known as Thakuris.
10) F. B. Hamilton, Dor Bahadur Bista, Rhisikesh Shah believe Kings as the Magars. Eden Vansitart, Percival Landon, John Whelpton, Jiro kawakita, Brian H. Hodgson also have written the same way.
11) Whatever be the relationship with MUKUNDA SEN or the King makes no difference to the MAGARS of today.
BK Rana responds
Dear Dr. Thapa,
Analyzing linguistic and cultural attributes of Magars of Palpa, some five years ago, I had written in a handout that Mukunda Sen could be a Magar by his ethnic identity. The handout was prepared in light of ongoing activism on Magar Identity for National Population Census of 2058.
Back in 2039 BS, I was for a week in Palpa Argali [Argauli] on an Intensive Agricultural Research Project conducted by APROSC/HMG Ministry of Agriculture. At that time, I had been able to meet with some Magars who claimed they were the descedants of King Mukunda Sen. They said “Mani’ Mukunda Sen instead of Mukunda Sen.
Those Argali Magars appeared to me Mongoloid, strong built and tall, however, the naming of Sen kings are Sanskritized ones. Those Magars owned nice plots of irrigated land [Khet] in Palpa Argali.
Sometime later I had asked Surendra S. Ranaji who told those were different Magars, however, he did not elaborate what Magars are the Argali Magars actually.
One of the Kusunda origin myths also suggests that Magars and Thakuris [Sens, Shahs, Mallas] are brothers. I have not been able to find any mentioning of Sen king’s in Kalhan’s Rajtarangini.
The conventional wisdom on Sen Thakuris is ‘Chhetris’ but lacks any scientific foundation. Dor Bahadur Bista, in a meeting in 1992, had told me Magars and Thakuris are brothers. His book ‘Fatalism and Development’ may be reviewed. But, Dr. Hark Gurung takes Bista’s elaboration otherwise.
Sincerely yours,
Magar Studies Center on Mani Mukunda Sen
“MSC” < wrote”>magarstudiescenter@yahoo.com> wrote: – >From: MSC <magarstudiescenter@yahoo.com>
To: MSC <magarstudiescenter@yahoo.com>
Subject: Who was Mukunda Sen?
Date: Wed, 13 Apr 2005 05:31:19 -0700 (PDT)
Dear Magarbandhus,
On 12 Apr 2005 a music CD entitled “Maulakali Gaindakotai ma” was released. During the deliberations it was said that Mani Mukunda Sen, the King of Palpa, had once camped in Nawalparasi jungle. His soldiers installed the “Maula” to perform Puja to Kali deity. Since that time people have been worshiping in that temple. But the detail information about the King is missing. Who exactly was Mukunda Sen? Magar? Or Thakuri? Some available information on this issue contradicts each other.
Is there any Magarbandhu who knows about it? Please share. But be careful there are information available which may not be true or not fact based.
Happy New Year and Happy Chaite Dasain.
[1] AD 1148 or BS 1204
[2] Rajtarangini: Kasmireitihas page 99.
[3] Prof. Jagadish Chandra Regmi and Prof. Raja Ram Subedi believe Aramudi as Magar King of Kali Gandaki Area.
[4] I prefer using kingdoms to principalities
[5] Literally, a confederation of eighteen Magar principalities
[6] Dang, Salyan, Pyuthan, Rukum, Rolpa etc. districts of present Nepal.
[7] Twelve-cornered pond in Dang Valley
[8] Folklore on Barha Magrat and Baisbaju.
[9] The Gorkha Vamshavali, the genealogy of ruling Shah Kings
[10] Ministry of Education and Sports, Keshar Library, Kathmandu.
[11] His Majesty Magar King Mukunda Sen.